Hydrogen-air fuel cells are considered as a promising energy system for various applications because of its relatively high electrical efficiency (60%) and lack of harmful emissions.
In Russia and the world actively in the development and implementation on the basis of low-temperature hydrogen-air fuel elements with proton-exchange membrane of the PEMFC type (temperature membrane 50-80 0With fuel – gaseous hydrogen). The principle of their work lies in the process of splitting hydrogen molecules at the anode to protons and electrons, migration of positive charge through the proton-exchange membrane, while electrons pass through the load of the consumer. Then there is the subsequent restoration of hydrogen ions at the cathode and oxidation with oxygen. Thus, the chemical energy of hydrogen molecules and oxygen (from air) is converted into electrical energy (with an efficiency of 60%), "exhaust" is clean water vapor.
The scope of low-temperature hydrogen-air fuel cells:
- Telecommunication systems (repeaters, cellular, etc.)
- On vehicles as auxiliary power plants
- Portable and mobile electric power plants